CAUSES OF HIGH POPULATION GROWTH RATES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The rapid population growth rates in developing countries may be as a result the following factors:
- Early marriages among the youth. Many people marry and or produce clearly in life, say before the age of 21 years. This results in rapid population growth in developing countries.
- Reduced civil wars and natural calamities. This results in rapid population in developing countries as the relative calm forces people to procreate children.
- Cultural or traditional tendencies that encourage large families. In some cult children are regarded as sources of pleasure and pride to parents. Pan therefore; produce very many children in order to fulfill these traditional mores.
- High polygamy rate in society especially among Moslems. This results in population growth in developing countries among the polygamous communities.
- High poverty rate among the population. Many people produce children in or: to have old age social security later in life whereby children provide for the needs of their parents in old age.
- High level of prostitution. Many people have loose sex with several parties resulting in production of any, sometimes unwanted, children hence fast growth of population.
- Low level of literacy and inferiority complex of some women. Some woman believe that they are valuable only for their reproductive functions and that they can best retain their spouses by producing many children in polygamous familial for example, wives compete amongst themselves as to who would out-do the other in producing many children. This results in fast growth of the population.
- Limited family planning programmes in the rural areas. Many people are ignore of family planning methods; both their availability and benefits. Those that aware of their existence and benefits cannot afford to use them. This has result in limited use of contraceptives hence high birth rate and high population grow: rate.
- Decline in death rates due to improved health care. Improved medical care through effective public health programmes at all levels such as establishment medical facilities, vaccination and health awareness has reduced death rate-resulting in fast rate of population.
- High rate of immigration to developing countries due to insecurities in other countries. Due to political instabilities and limited economic opportunities.
- Some countries, many people emigrate to other countries leading to rapid population increase in the recipient countries.
- High rates of pregnancies among the unmarried due to rape and fornication. Due to the high level of adventurism among the unmarried, there is fornication suiting high rates of pregnancies hence high population growth rates.
- High infant mortality rates. Due to high infant mortality rates, many people produce very many children as security against child mortality so that as others die. Others remain. Sometimes all the children survive mortality resulting in high population growth rates.
- Low cost of raising children. The cost of raising children in some countries is low due to availability of food cheaply and state provision of merit goods like education and health at heavily subsidized rates. Since child upbringing is not very burdensome to parents, they do not see need to restrain their fertility.
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DETERMINANTS AND INDICATORS OF OPTIMUM POPULATION
Optimum population refers to the population size that provides labourforce that is sufficient to combine with co-operant factors (resources) leading to maximum output per worker (or highest per capita income per worker or highest average product per worker).
Hence a certain number of people is required to optimally utilise the available resources; below it (under-population) under utilisation of resources and above it (over population) resources are over-utilised
Determinants of optimum population
- The level of savings.
- The level of technology.
- The level of natural resource base.
- The available stock of capital.
- The size of the population / amount of labour supply.
Indicators of optimum population
- Maximum utilisation of resources.
- High level of employment.
- More equitable distribution of incomes,
- Maximum output per worker.
- Limited dependence or expenditure on imports.
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- Contribution of the production function to the success of a business or quality indicators
NEGATIVE ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE POPULATION STRUCTURE
- Results into unemployment and underemployment. This is because of the high population growth rate that results into excess labour supply compared to job openings.
- High rates of rural-urban migration and its negative effects like prostitution, high crime rates and congestion. This is due to the high population growth rates m rural areas that cause poor living conditions in such areas.
- High social costs in form of pollution, accidents, congestion and sanitary problems. This is due to the increasing population in the urban areas.
- Causes (perpetuates) increased income inequality between the employed and unemployed and between those above the poverty line and those below the poverty line.
- High government expenditure on provision of social services to the increasing regulation dominated by the young.
- High dependence burden thereby limiting savings. This is due to the dominance of the young age group that strains the working population.
- Worsens the balance of payments problems. This is because the high population growth rate leads to increase in import requirements to support the domestic
- Quick depletion of resources (overexploitation of the available resources). This b due to the increasing demand for resources like firewood by the increasing regulation in the rural areas.
- Makes effective government planning for the population difficult. The steadily rising population makes it difficult for the government to make long term plans. This arises because economic planners fail to accurately predict the population size over the years to set realistic development objectives and targets.
- Increases external resource dependence especially on foreign manpower. The regulation of Uganda is mainly semi-skilled; therefore, Uganda relies on repatriates in different fields leading to higher foreign expenditure.
- Low effective demand / limited domestic market. This is because many people r. e on less than a dollar a day implying that they are very poor and are not able to buy many goods and services which scares away investors.
- Increases brain drain. The structure of Uganda’s population reveals that a big size of the population is unemployed and this forces many skilled people to seek for alternative employment in other countries.
- Low labour productivity. This arises due to the fact that a big portion of the reputation is semi-skilled or unskilled which reduces the size of national income.
- Overstrains the available infrastructure like schools and hospitals. This is because the population is steadily increasing yet the infrastructure is not growing. Public utilities like hospitals, schools and roads are put under greater pressure by the growing population
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POSITIVE ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE POPULATION STRUCTURE
- High market potential due to the high population growth rate. The steady growing population provides a large market potential.
- High potential for labourforce due to the high population growth rate. For example there is a possibility for the provision of cheap labour because many people are unskilled and semi-skilled.
- The high population growth rate provides a high potential for increased resource utilization leading to high economic growth rates.
- The dominant young population encourages effort to work hard so as to sustain the dependants.
- High potential for government tax revenue. This is due to the high population growth rate that provides labourforce to be taxed by the government.
- Acts as an incentive or potential for massive future investment because of the dominant young age brackets.
- The predominant young age group is usually innovative and creative. This g room for new discoveries leading to technological progress.
- The high population growth rate awakens the government to its responsibility: providing the necessary infrastructure which leads to increase in output.
- The high population growth rate reduces per capita social overhead costs for example reduction in the cost of providing infrastructure.
- Encourages labour mobility. The high population growth rate forces the skills: and unskilled labour to search for better opportunities either within the country: outside the country in order to earn a living.
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WHAT IS THE HIDDEN MOMENTUM OF POPULATION GROWTH?
Hidden momentum of population growth is a situation where the greatest portion of the population is made up of the young implying a higher growth rate it future.
Or Is a dynamic latent process of population increase that continues even after a fall in birth rates because of a large youthful population that widens the population parent base
WHAT IS NET INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION?
Net International migration, is the difference between those leaving the country and those entering it during a given period time
The solution to Problems Facing New York City
- Vertical expansion by building storage houses by minimizing space like World trade centre.
- Modernization of transport and communication by constructing underground tunnels, highways, fly overs, traffic lights and using public transport like buses and trains.
- Restrictions on the number of immigrants by not giving visas and putting strict conditions.
- Population control using modern methods of family planning and setting population policies e.g. Age and times of marriage, number of children.
- Separating industrial areas from residential areas and shifting some of the urban services helping to decongest the city.
- Change on the constitution reducing on discrimination, conflicts and tension.
- Training skilled labour by promoting sciences leading to job creators.
- Giving loans to finance small income generating projects.
- Improvement in political stability and security like using the pentagon mostly of defence, FBI, CIA.
- Economic diversification leading to many economic activities reducing on dependence burden.
- International relations and regional corporation leading to export and import trade and foreign investment (coca cola, shell)
- Improvement in science and technology helping companies, maintenance, rehabilitation of the urban infrastructure and social services.
- Environmental protection through proper waste management for gazetting national parks, game reserves, planting grass, flowers.
- Improvement of infrastructure and social services like water supply, drainage systems, health facilities leading to increased standards of living.
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